Bunions, referred to as Hallux valgus or Hallux Abducto Valgus (HAV) to the medical community, is a bony bump that forms at the base of the big toe where it connects to the foot. Bunions can be caused by various factors, including genetics, improper footwear, and certain foot mechanics. 

Another type of bunion which some individuals experience is called a Tailor`s bunion or Bunionette. A tailor’s bunion is a bony protrusion that forms on the outside of the foot at the base of the fifth metatarsal bone, near the pinky toe. It’s similar to a regular bunion (which forms on the inside of the foot at the base of the big toe), but it occurs on the other side of the foot. 

 Bunions can cause pain, discomfort, and difficulty finding well-fitting footwear. 


  • The most noticeable symptom is the visible bump on the side of the big toe joint or on the outside of the foot towards the joint at the little toe.
  • Pain or discomfort, which can range from mild to severe, especially when wearing tight shoes or engaging in certain activities.
  • Swelling, redness, and inflammation around the bunion.
  • Limited movement of the big toe due to the misalignment of the joint.
  • Corns or calluses may develop where the bunion rubs against the shoe or other toes.

Treatment: Treatment for bunions can be conservative or surgical, depending on the severity of the condition and the level of pain or discomfort:

  1. Conservative Treatments:
    • Change of Footwear: Wearing shoes with a wide toe box and proper arch support can help alleviate pressure on the bunion.
    • Orthotic Inserts: Custom or over-the-counter orthotic inserts can help distribute pressure more evenly across the foot.
    • Padding: Padded cushions or moleskin can protect the bunion from friction and irritation.
    • Toe Spacers: These can be placed between the big toe and the second toe to help prevent toe crowding and relieve pressure on the bunion.
    • Physical Therapy: Stretching and strengthening exercises can help improve foot mechanics and reduce bunion-related discomfort.
  2. Pain Relief Measures:
    • Ice Packs: Applying ice to the bunion can help reduce inflammation and provide temporary pain relief.
    • Pain Medication: Over-the-counter pain relievers or anti-inflammatory medications can help manage pain and swelling.
  3. Surgical Treatment:
    • If conservative measures fail to provide relief and the bunion is causing severe pain or deformity, surgical intervention may be considered.
    • Surgical options vary and may involve realigning the bones, removing the bunion, or addressing associated joint issues.


  • Choose footwear with a wide toe box and proper arch support.
  • Avoid high heels and tight shoes that squeeze the toes.
  • If you have a family history of bunions, consider being proactive about wearing proper footwear and practicing good foot care.

If you suspect you have a bunion or are experiencing foot pain, it’s important to consult a podiatrist or a healthcare professional specializing in foot and ankle conditions. They can provide an accurate diagnosis, recommend appropriate treatments, and help you manage the condition effectively. Early intervention and proper foot care can help prevent bunions from worsening and improve your overall foot health.

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